Some people, especially the older generation, see oral piercing as a form of rebellion or anomaly, while others see it as a form of self-expression through body art. While there is a debate that oral puncture and other types of punctures are related to mental health, it is certain that it will affect oral health in the long run.
Oral piercing includes areas such as lips, cheeks, tongue, and uvula. Usually, these piercings do not require anaesthetics but use dumbbell-shaped jewellery to go through the selected area.
For tongue perforations, initially use a longer temporary provision to prevent the hole from closing and to facilitate final swelling. Then insert the open end of the post into the ventral-dorsal position and tighten the latch in this position between the lower jaw and upper jaw. Some people choose to install the perforations laterally so that they line up with the dorsolateral tongue surface.
Usually, if there are no complications, the puncture wound will heal after four to six weeks.
Another form of oral art is tongue splitting, that is, the tongue is literally cut in two to get a “forked” appearance. There are reports that a variety of techniques are being used to do this, including some relatively primitive techniques, which is using a burning pen behind a scalpel or passing a fishing line through an existing tongue puncture and pulling it forward, then cutting it forward. Then keep the tongue pieces apart so they can heal into two separate pieces.
When it comes to piercing on the cheek or lip, a piece of jewellery is usually placed in the lip area and placed in the mouth under the aesthetic preference of the recipient. Once the desired location has been determined, the cork-like device is inserted into the mouth to support the receiving end of the needle after the needle has entered the meat. After this is done, a labret stud is used to replace the needle and the cork back is screwed to the inside of the mouth. This type of perforation can take weeks or months to heal.
Although the existing scientific literature is very limited, the intraoral and perioral complications caused by oral perforation are diverse. The most common symptoms of early perforation are pain, infection, swelling, and increased saliva flow. These symptoms can explain the following complications:
Infection is mainly caused by the intensification of stab wounds, bacteria in the mouth and bacteria worn by jewellery. Because the tongue is vascular in nature, the way the jewellery is inserted can break or scratch the front teeth. Bacteria in the mouth form a biofilm on the surface of the jewellery, forming colonies, making the bacteria resistant to certain antibiotics and mouthwashes. In addition, digitally processed jewellery can increase the chance of infection from the chemicals it comes into contact with.
The spread of disease –
The National Institutes of Health have further confirmed that blood-borne hepatitis B and C and the spread of the herpes simplex virus pose a potential risk of oral puncture. The spread of other diseases, such as the spread of tetanus and local tuberculosis, is also related to ear perforations.
Endocarditis bacteria that enter the bloodstream can also eventually lead to endocarditis, which is inflammation of the heart or valves. People with underlying heart problems are at greater risk, some of whom may have no symptoms and have never been diagnosed. Endocarditis has also been associated with perforated ears and nostrils.
Nerve damage or prolonged bleeding-
nerve damage can cause loss of sensation or numbness in the perforated area and movement problems (for tongue perforations). If a blood vessel is pierced, it can cause prolonged bleeding. If the swelling of the tongue becomes so severe that it blocks the airways of the recipient, there is also a risk of breathing difficulties.
Gum disease –
People with punctures, especially those with long stems, have increased risk factors for gum disease. The dumbbell-shaped studs can hit and damage the gums, causing it to dent and eventually loosen or even fall out. The study reports that the most common places for oral perforations are lips and tongue. Tongue puncture can damage the gums behind the lower front teeth, while lip puncture can damage the gums on the front.
Teeth damaged or cracked teeth caused by perforated jewellery are very common. A dental journal previously reported that at least 47% of people who have used dumbbell-shaped jewellery in the oral cavity for at least four years have experienced at least one case of broken teeth.
Difficulty in daily oral function –
Tongue puncture can interfere with normal daily functions, resulting in difficulties in chewing and swallowing food. As we all know, motor skills can also be affected. Because piercing jewellery stimulates and worsens saliva secretion, it usually prevents the recipient from speaking clearly. This can also cause temporary or permanent drooling. The result also found a change in taste.
Hypersensitivity to metals –
Allergic contact dermatitis is a hypersensitivity reaction to jewellery metal, which is known to occur with piercings. Secondary infections caused by oral punctures can be very serious. According to a report in the British Journal of Dentistry, Ludwig’s angina pectoris is cellulite that affects the sublingual, submandibular and subsea spaces on both sides, spreads quickly, and appears a few days after the patient’s puncture. She must be intubated to clear the airway. The patient did not respond to antibiotics, so surgery was necessary to remove the jewellery and control the swelling of the mouth.
perforated jewellery that is loose in the mouth can be a choking hazard and if swallowed it can also cause damage to the digestive tract or lungs. In addition, oral decorations can hide X-ray abnormalities and anatomical structures, hindering dental diagnosis. There is also a theory that the electrical current generated by stainless steel jewellery that comes into contact with metal in the mouth can also cause pulp sensitivity.